Thursday, August 22, 2019

Antimicrobial Resistance:Searching for clues to fight antibiotic resistance

To conflict the rise of drug-resistant bacteria, researchers are developing how one superbug bacteria adapts to fight with an antibiotic of last resort, hoping to find clues that can lengthen the drug's effectiveness.
Researchers at Rice University and the University Of Texas Health Science Centre at Houston ran experiments to track the biochemical changes that vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) underwent as they adapted to fight another antibiotic, daptomycin.
"We need to get to a platform where we can anticipate how these pathogens will become resistant to antibiotics so we can stay one step ahead of them," said Rice biochemist Youssef Shampoo, co-author of a study in the journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy that found VRE can develop resistance to daptomycin in more than one way.
The stakes are high. In 2014, the World Health Organization reported that antibiotic-resistant infections were on pace to kill 10 million people per year worldwide by 2050.
According to the U.S. Centres for Disease Control, VRE is one of the nation's leading antibiotic resistance threats. The Centres for Disease control estimated Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci will infect some 30,000 people in the U.S. this year and kill 2,300 of them.
Daptomycin, an antibiotic that first became available in 2003, is one of the last drugs doctors can use to fight multidrug-resistant superbugs like VRE, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE).
Unfortunately, health officials documented cases of daptomycin resistance as early as 2005, and the number of cases is on the rise worldwide.
Shampoo said one of the principle findings of the study was that a specific strain of VRE, Enterococcus faecium, has an unusually diverse set of strategies for resisting antibiotics like daptomycin, and that diversity can make treatment of infections even more difficult.
It is believed that by understanding how these pathogens acquire resistance, we can produce advanced treatment strategies or new 'co-drugs' that target their ability to become resistant.
Co-drugs that target the evolution of resistance could be administered with antibiotics like daptomycin which help patients fight off infection and stem the spread of increasingly resistant strains of bacteria in hospitals.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The secret life of Antimicrobial peptides


When it comes to the immune system, we usually think about lymphocytes B and T cells or macrophages going on constant seek-and-destroy missions against invading pathogens like bacteria and viruses. But our immune system actually includes a lesser-known and less-studied first line of defence referred to as "innate immunity."
One of the main weapons of innate immunity is a family of small peptides, collectively known as "antimicrobial peptides" or AMPs for short. AMPs are produced by the host's (e.g. the human's) cells and combat invading microorganisms by breaking apart their cell membranes or by disrupting their functions.
Despite of their importance, we know very little about AMPs. Some in vitro studies have shown that they can kill bacteria and fungi, but scientists have been hard pressed to study them in living organisms. One of the reasons is that there are simply too many factors involved in innate immunity, so isolating the effect of individual AMPs in a living organism is a very complex proposition.
But now we have the tools. Scientists from the lab of Bruno Lemaitre at EPFL's Global Health Institute have used CRISPR, the gene-editing technique, to delete no less than 14 AMPs from the fruit fly Drosophila. By deleting single AMP genes, various combinations of genes, or even all 14 genes, the scientists were able to remove their corresponding AMPs and observe how their absence affected the fly's resistance to different bacterial and fungal pathogens.
The results showed that, at least in Drosophila, AMPs act mainly against Gram-negative bacteria (e.g. E. coli, Enterobacter species) and certain fungi. The AMPs also work either together or by adding up their individual effects. Surprisingly, they found that certain AMPs can be incredibly specific in defending against certain infections (e.g. the AMP diptericin against the pathogen P. rettgeri). This unexpected result highlights a previously unknown level of specificity to the innate immune response.
"What's really exciting is that these results will help us understand how our own AMPs might help fight infection," says Mark Austin Hanson, the study's first author. "It could be that some people have a defective copy of a specific AMP needed to prevent a common infection -- as an example, uropathogenic E. coli -- and so they are at higher risk. Fighting infection is great, but learning how to prevent it in the first place is the ideal of medicine. That's what these AMPs do: they prevent infection before it ever settles in."
But the applications of studying AMPs go even further, Hanson adds. "Studying how the fly's AMPs work can also help us manage economically important insects, whether it be protecting bumblebees or preventing mosquitoes from spreading disease."

Antimicrobial congress 2019


ME Conferences invites all the participants from all over the world to attend ‘ANTIMICROBIAL CONGRESS 2019’ which includes prompt Keynote Presentations, Special Sessions, Workshops, Symposiums, Oral talks, Poster Presentations, and Exhibitions.
An antimicrobial is an operator who kills the microorganisms or suppresses their development. They are classified according to their mode of action on the particular microorganism. Depending upon the range of bacterial species helpless to these specialists antibacterial is classified as a wide range, intermediate-spectrum, or narrow- range. Non–pharmaceuticals antimicrobial gives a wide range of chemical and common compounds utilized as antimicrobials. The Immunology of have defence peptides gives assorted activities of HDPs. The utilize and misuse of antimicrobial drugs quickens the rise of drug-resistant strains. Post-antibiotic period alludes to a time when a number of irresistible illnesses will be inert to anti-microbial medicines.           

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) are those organisms that resistant to different antimicrobials.R resistant microorganisms (compiling organisms, bacteria, parasites, and infections) have the capacity to allow impacts on antimicrobial drugs. Unreasonable utilize of antimicrobial drugs rapidly the origin of drug-resistant strains. Poor contamination control practices, unseemly food-handling, and insufficient sterile conditions lead to the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Determination of antimicrobial medicates resistance is assessed by lab tests that make it troublesome for the confined organisms to develop and survive in the nearness of the sedate. Antimicrobial chemotherapy alludes to the utilize of antimicrobial drugs to treat contamination. Microbial immunology alludes to the interrelationship among irresistible specialists and there has, with microbial and viral pathogenesis and the immunological have a reaction to diseases.
ME Conferences is organizing “ 2nd International Conference on Antimicrobial and Antibacterial Agents” during November 11-12, 2019 at Istanbul, Turkey. Conference highlights the theme Current Trends and Research Innovation in Microbiology.

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