Petting zoos transmit Virulent drug-resistant bacteria to visitors

Human infectious diseases: Petting zoos transmit Virulent drug-resistant bacteria to visitors
Petting zoos are a popular attraction around the world, allowing direct and indirect exposure of both children and adults to a diverse range of animal species. They are different from regular zoos because rather than visitors just looking at the animals, petting zoos are interactive with children visiting, holding and petting the animals. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae (AmpC-E), which are resistant to a number of commonly used antibiotics, have become a matter of great concern in both human and veterinary medicine, so understanding the likelihood of them colonizing the animals is critical to evaluating the risk that may be posed to visitors. The researchers did a survey across randomly chosen petting zoos geographically distributed throughout the world, taking samples of faecal matter as well as from the body surface (skin, fur, or feathers) from m…

Drug-Resistance in Farm Animals Threatens Human Health

Antimicrobial Drug: Drug-Resistance in Farm Animals Threatens Human Health
In high-economic countries, where antimicrobial have been used on farms since the 1950s, should support the transition to sustainable animal production in low & middle income countries for e.g. through a global fund to subsidize improvements in farm-level bio-safety and bio-security, the authors advocate in the study. The Netherlands and Denmark have made a tremendous effort to reduce antimicrobial use. But these required investments in clean infrastructure and training of farmers to follow good farming practices and practicing good hygiene on the farm can reduce drug resistance in farm animals. A survey report has been done from 2000 and 2018 focusing specifically on common food-borne pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., non-typhoidal Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus. Trends and maps developed from this analysis provide a baseline for policymakers in low & middle income countri…

The Bacterial Protein promoting Cancer

Viral Oncology: The Bacterial Protein promoting Cancer
DNA K, a protein of the bacterium mycoplasma, interferes with the mycoplasma-infected cell's ability to respond to and repair DNA damage, a known origin of cancer. Little or no mycoplasma DnaK DNA sequences were found associated with the tumor, which was fully developed, suggesting a hit-and-run or hide mechanism of transformation, indicating that the damage is done early, but the protein may not be needed once the cancer cells are formed.
                  Mycoplasmas are a family of bacteria that are associated with cancers, especially in people with HIV. Researchers utilized immune-compromised mice as a model for analyzing the effect of mycoplasma infection on the development of lymphoma. They compared how quickly non-infected immune-compromised mice developed lymphoma compared to mycoplasma-infected immune-compromised mice. The mice were infected with a strain of mycoplasma from an HIV patient. The researchers found that myc…

Stealth virus for cancer therapy

Viral Oncology: Stealth virus for cancer therapyScientists have redesigned an adenovirus for use in cancer therapy. They have developed a new protein shield that hides the virus and protects it from being eliminated. Adapters on the surface of the virus enable the reconstructed virus to specifically infect tumour cells. Viruses have their own genetic material which can infect human cells in a very specific manner. They will then reproduce as directed by their own genes but using the resources of the host cell. These properties proofs that they can fight with hereditary diseases or cancer. There are uncountable different viruses, but the human adenovirus 5, which normally causes the symptoms of a typical cold, has substantial advantages. Without any of the viral genes left, the virus cannot replicate and trigger diseases. In addition, the genome of the adenovirus is very large and does not assimilate into human chromosomes.
Adapter molecules dock the virus to the tumor Until now the use o…

New class of Antibiotics disrupts protein synthesis

Antimicrobial Drugs : Odilorhabdins
Odilorhabdins, or ODLs, a new class of antibiotics which disrupts protein synthesis are produced by symbiotic bacteria Xenorhabdus Nematophilia, found in soil-dwelling nematode worms that colonize insects for food. The bacteria Xenorhabdus Nematophilia actually helps to kill the insect and, importantly, secrete the antibiotic to keep competating the other bacteria away. Till now, these nematode-associated bacteria and the antibiotics they make have been largely understudied. To identify the antibiotic property present in the xenorhabdus bacteria, researchers screened 80 cultured strains of the bacteria & isolated the active compounds showing properties of antibiotics, studied their chemical structures and engineered more potent derivatives. ODLs mainly act on the ribosome, which is the molecular machine of individual cells that makes the proteins it needs to function of bacterial cells. Like many clinically useful antibiotics, ODLs work by targeti…

Can Microorganisms Be A Solution To The World's Energy Problems?

Biofuels & Petroleum Microbiology :
Can Microorganisms Be A Solution To The World's Energy Problems?

Microorganisms once had an empire on the Earth, thriving by filling every nook and cranny of the environment billions of years before humans first arrived on the scene. The ability of microorganisms to grow from any infinite variety of food sources, rocks, soil, inside roots, compost piles & toxic waste etc. may play a significant role in bailing out our society from the current energy crisis. The Bio design researchers have outlined the paths, where bacteria are the best hope in producing renewable energy in large quantities without damaging the environment or competing with our food supply. Two distinct, but complementary uses of bacteria, which is a current major challenging research area, are: (1)The first use of the microbes is to convert biomass to useful energy. Different microorganisms can grow without oxygen to take this abundant organic matter and convert it to useful…

Novel Nano vaccine to treat skin cancer/melanoma

Vaccines & Vaccinology : Novel Nano vaccine for MelanomaResearchers have developed a novel Nano-vaccine for melanoma, the most aggressive type of skin cancer that begins in melanocytes. Their experiments have proven effective in preventing the development of melanoma and in treating primary tumours and metastases that result from melanoma. The focus of the research was on a nanoparticle that serves as the basis for the new vaccine. Melanoma develops in the skin cells, which is called the melanocytes, produce melanin or skin pigment. The fight against skin cancer/melanoma is becoming advanced over the years through a variety of treatment modalities & experiments, such as immunotherapy, radiation therapy & chemotherapy, but the vaccine approach, which has a great effect against various viral diseases, has not materialized yet against cancer. Scientists have shown that it is possible to produce an effective Nano-vaccine against melanoma/skin cancer and to sensitize the immune …